Talaat, Mubina (1993) Lexical Variation in Pakistani English. First and foremost, a great deal of interest has been generated in the English language as a result of its spread around the world and its use as an international language (Cheshire 1991:7). As, no reliable study on Urdu-English code-switching at the level of the phrase and clause is available, this paper is likely to bridge the gap. Herald (monthly) (Karachi). Talaat, Mubina (2003) Some Aspects of Creativity in Pakistani English or Improvised Communication, Pakistan journal of language, vol. Code-switching ccurs when two languages come in contact: the alternation of two languages within a single discourse, sentence or constituent (Poplack 1980:581). Inter-clausal code-switching: As mentioned earlier, code-switching occurring at the sentence level is called inter-sentential code-switching. For instance, I change codes to express happiness, sorrow, anger, sadness, and any other feelings. Nevertheless, on a negative note, code switching carries a hidden prestige that is explicit by attitudes.
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Note: I would like to thank Professor. They are inter-sentential switching, that is switching from one language to another at a sentence boundary, and intra-sentential code-switching, or code-mixing when the switch takes place within one sentence. (1986) The Alchemy of English: the Spread, Functions, and Models Of Non-native English. A collective term used for both preposition and postposition is adposition. When people develop different hobbies, or play different sports, they learn the terminology used in those groups in order to fit. Nagoya, Japan: Nanzan University. A transplanted language is cut off from its traditional roots and begins to function in new surroundings, in new roles and new contexts. It is, therefore, imperative that I understand the appropriate time to effect code switching. Bali, a dentist in Aligarh, who was shocked when one day, Sikandar asked him: Aap ki sahabzadi kaisi hain? In World Englishes 2000. Whether it is used to relate thought, fit in or even stand out, code-switching is most likely done by all races, cultural background and ethnicity. This type of switching is very rare and demands high proficiency.
Bottery, Mike (2000) Education, Policy and Ethics. After analyzing intra-sentential code-switching at the level of phrase, now we want to turn to inter-sentential code-switching in Pakistani English. In the examples given below, the Urdu adjective phrases are modifying the English nouns in the noun phrases. This is a phenomenon that was conducted by Cecilia Montes Alcala (Alcala, 2007). Most of the times, a switched noun clause acts as a complement of an English verb. (September 25, 2005 D). For many Pakistanis, English has become not only a practical necessity, but also the language of opportunity, social prestige, power, success as well as social superiority. Schools require students to code switch because code switching helps improve your communication, which is good for future job interviews and speaking with people authority.
Mahboob, A (2003) The English Language in Pakistan: A Brief Overview of its History and Linguistics. One important thing worthwhile to mention here is that it seems harder to break up a relative clause/phrase than other types of subordination. The Urdu language is not different from English as far as the structure of phrase is concerned. In Baumgardner, R (Ed. Linguistics, and Literature, University of Hawaii and the East- West Centre,. So the non-native speakers use English more than the natives ones.
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Pakistani English has assumed a linguistic and cultural identity of its own. Its prevalence and power in Pakistan is growing very much. (I will not be disappointed) (July 16, 2006 D). (July 17, 2005 D). But in this paper, only that data has been taken into account where Urdu phrases and clauses have been used. The next section begins with inter-clausal code switching. Very soon, I will be a big star in Bollywood, main naumeed nahin hougni. Since phrase insertion is always a complex kind of switching, it demands a high degree of proficiency and accuracy from the bilinguals involved in code-switching. In most cases, I am forced to associate with the popular language at any point in time. (December 04, 2005 D). He believes that nativization must be seen as the result of those productive linguistic innovations which are determined by the localized function of a second language variety, the culture of conversation and commutative strategies in new situations and transfer from local languages (Kachru 1986: 21-2).
Though, my language switch is not intentional and does not mean to irritate anybody, people with different ethnic and racial affiliation always feel segregated. . Here are three examples where Urdu clauses are syntactically independent; however, they share a semantic relationship with each other:. Here are some examples of the use of the Urdu noun phrases occurring as the subject of the English verbs:. (I am bad, friendship with me is bad) Thats all (March 25, 2007 D) Subordinated clauses: Urdu subordinated clauses are also used in Pakistani English, which is a very important aspect of inter-sentential code-switching. (January 08, 2006 D) It is very interesting to note that the Urdu postposition phrase occurs at the same position where its English equivalent could have been. In example 2 the Urdu noun phrase begins with English determiner the. Code switching refers to the ability to express information through the use of two languages. My ability to speak in different languages and codes has been instrumental in my everyday lives.
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This also helps students understand how they need to talk to authority or when theyre trying to get jobs or things in their life they may need to use other type of ways of speaking. Mahboob (2003) described different phonological and grammatical aspects of Pakistani English, which are quite different from Standard British English. For instance, during my English discussion, I can switch language to explain a concept in The French language. Because if it becomes a court case, then it will be a lengthy process. Anzaldua agrees, as she had about three different forms of Spanish that she would use while around her friends and family, compared to the other types of Spanish or English she would use while out in the real world (530). Urdu-English Code-Switching: The Use of Urdu Phrases and Clauses In Pakistani English (A Non-native Variety) Abstract This paper presents an analysis of Urdu-English code-switching in Pakistani English. For instance, I often find myself code switching when I need to drive home an important point. Main buri, mairai dausti burai.
(March 25, 2007 D). (February 26, 2005 D). My passion for The French language is immeasurable and in most cases I just find myself changing the language to illustrate topics that are easy to explain with such language. Anger can result to use of abusive language and hence changing codes to fulfill such objectives become inevitable. According to one of them, they were not shunned by the public as lula, langra and apahaj (lame and paralyzed). Schools require students to code switch because it helps them in the classroom and in the world. (1997) Resources for Research and Teaching. Such power is vividly seen in Pakistan where people tend to switch from Urdu to English to create special effect.
More so, most of the people that use code switching have fluent abilities on the two languages. Another interesting feature of Pakistani English that has been found as a result of Urdu-English code-switching is the use of an independent Urdu clause or sentence with English in written as well as spoken English. The object of a preposition In the following example, the switched Urdu noun clause has been used as the subject of an English verb:. In this example, the English subordinate essay about code switching clause precedes the Urdu main clause:. I cannot make new friends. A large number of borrowings from Urdu and the regional languages of Pakistan have entered in Pakistani English (Baumgardner 1993).
Amjad considered her as ustad se ziyada dost (friend rather than teacher). They develop different languages, and learn when and how to use them very well in order to make sure that they are always at an advantage. The whole thing is that key bhaiya sab se bada rupaiya. Bilingualism in itself is a source of creativity in language (Talaat 2003). (March 18, 2007 D) Example 4 reflects a very complex kind of code-switching. This plays an important role in developing a rapport with the concerned group. Repetitions and other switches. Code switching helps students in their future, though can affect their self esteem in themselves. The following two kinds of Urdu subordinate clauses have been found in Pakistani English:. (let it be) (September 11, 2005 D) ho rahi hai ain verb Progressive form auxiliary The above-mentioned data and examples suggest that Urdu phrases are frequently used in Pakistani English and its occurrences at various positions in a sentence seem to be quite appropriate. And Elias- Olivares,. (1990) Dutch-Moroccan Arabic code-switching among Moroccans in the Netherlands. The colloquial phrase used for this punishment was kala ki saza.
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January 08, 06 D) In the above example, Urdu evaluative metaphors that reflect Pakistani social customs, localized attitude and behavior have been used in English syntax. In such instances, I just find myself switching codes where I use short form and slang to ensure that the audience gets the desired information and understand the concepts thoroughly. To sum it up, code switching is an important part of my life, and it is there to stay. Some of these forms of Spanish were slang, and others were more formal and accepted types of Spanish. English is no exception in this regard. All the present data shows that the occurrences of various Urdu phrases and clauses impose no ungrammatical effect on the construction of English syntax. However, the English word of is equivalent to all these. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. My attempt to define my identity is hampered by the segregation and racial allegations from people of a different ethnic group.
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(October 30, 2005 D) He got all mixed up and asked well. Their response, I think you are right madam, said a young man, city life and modern education makes men very beghairat (dishonorable) (November 2006 H). I am always tempted to change language each and every time I meet with people from my ethnic group. Code switching is a switch in the way you speak or the language you speak. No one at the CCB was willing to say anything except that we have orders from our seniors. (Now-a-days people like happy movies) (December 11, 2005 D).